In contrast, in Municipality 8, the participants stated that local authorities carry out many campaigns to protect the environment, but people are not aware of this topic. The more commonly used mechanisms for citizen participation are the following: Community Action Councils, municipal committees for the environment, participation committees for affairs related to health territorial, municipal, departmental and public hearings and public consultation. These findings demonstrate that climate change governance is perceived differently, which concurs with Moyano et al. Therefore, the formulation of adequate and effective climate change governance must recognise the multitude of perceptions that converge in the process of governance that promotes greater participation of non-state stakeholders and other stakeholders Pohlmann, This dimension allows for both the identification and evaluation process and actions carried out in everyday life regarding climate change by the participants to understand the integration of scientific knowledge on climate change and the activities and processes performed by the population to control or mitigate climate change.
It is important to define the forms and strategies as people become involved, negotiate and participate in this issue. The participants have applied different mitigation practices, such as changes in the modes of dress and diet, the use of fans or air conditioners and the application of sunscreen. With respect to other practices related to climate change, the participants have decreased energy and water consumption and have made improvements to waste management, recycling and other practices, although these are intended to improve environmental quality.
In Municipality 5, a participant indicated that more adaptation actions are linked to consumption practices, but this is not a reflection of climate change and how one must adapt to this fact. In general, participants are sceptical in terms of campaigns or other educational activities designed for adoption by the population in their daily lives.
The majority of the participants have not made complaints, grievances or requests regarding climate change and believe that regions are not ready to address the consequences of climate change. In Municipality 3, a participant commented that through regulation, companies must integrate environmental plans or socio-environmental compensation in their processes, but these actions are not evident, and governmental entities do not monitor or evaluate the environmental impacts.
The focus groups show differences in opinions and perceptions of climate change according to region, taking into account the conditions and environment. Table IV describes the main results according to the four perception dimensions and the location of the focus group. These results concur with the research of Wardekker et al.
The results of this study on perception indicate that policy makers should take into account the following: different political instruments based on geographical features, impacts and vulnerability of climate change, and stakeholders;. Moreover, adequate governance of climate change must promote equity, participation, pluralism, transparency, accountability and the rule of law United Nations, These elements were noted by different participants of focus groups according to the particular environment and are a fundamental input to strengthening climate change policies in Colombia.
The design of policies and decision-making related to climate change requires progress in the appropriation of science by society. It is important to strengthen communication among scientists, decision makers and stakeholders and to translate knowledge into impacts and guidelines for action.
Ethics and Global Climate Change
The exploration of innovative institutional forms has become mandatory to achieve better adaptation to and mitigation of climate change Hidalgo and Natenzon, The findings of this study indicate that participants believe that climate change is occurring and that it is necessary to develop new plans that guarantee adequate adaptation to this situation. The Colombian population faces varying challenges in different regions, and it is important to continue with the design and implementation of effective climate governance that includes: exogenous drivers, such as the national political context, lessons from other countries, political support for climate action, the opinion of the population, market dynamics and previous experiences with disasters Dodman and Mitlin, ; Finnis et al.
In general, this study shows that the participants of the focus groups believe that climate change is occurring and is associated with changes in temperature, heavy rainfall, contamination and climate variability, among other issues. Perceptions of climate change show some differences between the regions, taking into account environmental conditions and cultural patterns. However, in these regions, the dominant social perception is rainfall and disease.
The participants expressed that they had information on mitigation or adaptation practices from the media and campaigns or other educational strategies that include care for the environment, recycling and reforestation.
However, the participants had doubts about the effectiveness of these campaigns because of the lack of incorporation of adequate measures in everyday life because the public is not aware of or is uninterested in climate change. The main media types used to inform the public about climate change are television and the internet, including national-level news programmes and websites of governmental offices, and at the international level, specialised programmes such as the Discovery Channel and National Geographic.
To strengthen communication on climate change, it is important to create an effective link between different stakeholders researchers, disseminators, communication media and population by taking into account the message to be transmitted, the purpose and scope, audience framing, the modes and channels that guarantee the effectiveness of the message and the appropriation of knowledge that creates a higher-level awareness in the population regarding climate change.
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Local governments should increase analysis and evaluation of the effects of climate change on the productive sectors, and regions and should empower competence, training, planning and preparedness for enhanced climate change adaptation and mitigation processes to develop adequate policy instruments according to requirements of regions. It is necessary to develop research to create adequate public policy instruments that allow for awareness and effectiveness in the adaptation to climate change.
Likewise: climate policy must promote actions that involve all stakeholders to achieve effective climate governance that integrates scientific and social advances in several aspects related to this issue;. The findings of this study demonstrate that perception studies are a key input to develop adequate climate change policy and to ensure inclusive participation and understanding of the requirements of the population with regard to climate change. Future research on the relationships among risk, vulnerability and perception could generate better strategies to improve political strategies and climate governance in the country by applying different instruments according to the features of each Colombian region because of cultural diversity and different effects based on geographical conditions.
Trends in studies of public perception in the past few decades. Description of the focus groups developed to understand the opinions and perceptions of climate change. Description of the types of vulnerability defined for Colombia based on temperature and precipitation.
Acevedo , E. Azevedo , I. Bonnett , M. Brechin , R. Capstick , S. Carvalho , A. Castan , V. Cidell , J. Cuevas , S. Dodman , D. Finnis , J. Frazier , T. Glaas , E. Greiving , S. Harley , C. Hidalgo , C. Eds , The Physical Science Basis. Jacobs , B.
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Zaval , L. The authors gratefully acknowledge the research team that helped carry out this work as well as comments by anonymous reviewers to improve the manuscript. She has experience in research on energy economics, energy efficiency, climate change, empirical analysis, social responsibility and industrial productivity in developed and developing countries.
William H. The professional performance experience has been oriented towards the management and research in land use, environment, public space and heritage as well as in the coordination and development of urban and environmental studies, which includes the implementation of investment projects. These activities have been developed mainly linked to public entities, as an officer and consultant. Participation in the planning, management and development, institutional programmes, allows for additional strengths in the implementation and operation of the project results and investigations conducted.
The research and teaching activities in urban planning, environmental aspects, theory and history of architecture and art, have focused on issues related to the processes of development and urban planning, sustainable development, history of the Colombian city, city theory, urban culture, semiotics, research techniques, history of mentalities, architectural and artistic styles, among others. Please share your general feedback. You can start or join in a discussion here. Third, there is an assumption that water stress can directly cause conflicts among countries.